There were banquets where countless vodka toasts were drunk. In one case, Stalin described Roosevelt as “the main forger of the instruments that led to the mobilization of the world against Hitler.” He called Churchill “the man born once every hundred years” and “the bravest statesman in the world.” The prime minister gave up vodka and was described by one of his advisers as “drinking buckets of Caucasian champagne that would harm the health of an ordinary man.” Roosevelt`s declining health was evident to everyone present. Accompanied by his daughter Anna, the 7,000-mile trip to Yalta had exhausted the president`s energy. Amid all the celebrations, euphoria, and self-satisfaction that Yalta, as the New York Herald Tribune wrote, “provided another great testimony to the unity, strength, and determination of the Allies,” it was Stalin himself who announced a prophetic warning note. The Soviet dictator responded to President Roosevelt`s toast, in which he hoped that the unity that had shaped the Grand Alliance against Hitler during the war would continue: Allied leaders came to Yalta knowing that an Allied victory in Europe was virtually inevitable, but less convinced that the Pacific War was coming to an end. The United States and Britain realized that a victory over Japan could require a protracted struggle and saw a great strategic advantage for Soviet participation in the Pacific theater. At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would go to war with Japan, and all three agreed that the Soviets would receive a sphere of influence in Manchuria in exchange for potentially decisive Soviet participation in the Pacific theater of war after Japan`s surrender. These included the southern part of Sakhalin, a lease at Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou), a share in the operation of the Manchu Railways and the Kuril Islands. This agreement was the most important concrete achievement of the Yalta Conference. Livadia Palace, seen in May 1918. It was the site of the Yalta in February 1945. President Roosevelt and his group were housed in the 50-room palace, whose president remarked, “This place has all the comforts of home.” The Yalta Conference took place in an atmosphere of optimism and tension. The German and Japanese empires were on the verge of collapse.
Roosevelt and Churchill hoped to install governments in these areas that would protect democracy and human rights, but they could not ignore Stalin`s military might. The Soviet leader was determined to hold Eastern Europe and expand his power elsewhere. The fate of hundreds of millions of people in Europe and Asia would be based on the agreement reached by the Big Three in Yalta. “There is no doubt that the flow of Anglo-Soviet-American friendship had reached a new peak,” James Byrnes, who accompanied Roosevelt to Yalta, wrote in his memoirs. Although Roosevelt and Churchill also saw the Yalta Conference as an indication that their war cooperation with the Soviets would continue in peacetime, such optimistic hopes would prove short-lived. Yalta was the second of three major war conferences among the three great ones. It was preceded by the Tehran Conference in November 1943, followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. This was preceded by a conference in Moscow in October 1944, in which President Roosevelt did not participate, in which Churchill and Stalin had spoken about the European Western and Soviet spheres of influence.  The main topic in Potsdam was the question of how to deal with Germany. At Yalta, the Soviets had lobbied for Germany to grant harsh post-war reparations, half of which was to go to the Soviet Union.
While Roosevelt had complied with these demands, Truman and his Secretary of State, James Byrnes, were determined to lessen Germany`s treatment by allowing occupying nations to demand reparations only from their own zone of occupation. Truman and Byrnes promoted this position because they wanted to avoid a repeat of the situation created by the Treaty of Versailles, which had demanded high reparations from Germany after World War I. Many experts agreed that the harsh reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles had hampered the German economy and fueled the rise of the Nazis. The Soviets also wanted the surrender of Karafuto and the Kuril Islands, which were taken from Russia by Japan during the Russo-Japanese War (1905), which was also agreed. The Big Three are also committed to preserving peace once it is achieved by maintaining strict control over post-war Germany, establishing an “international organization to maintain peace and security” (the United Nations), and working for the “restoration of sovereign rights and self-government to peoples who have been forcibly deprived by aggressor nations.” In particular, they promise to facilitate democracy in war-torn Poland and Yugoslavia. Overall, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin emphasized Allied unity, imminent victory, and commitment to human rights. Each of the three leaders had their own agenda for post-war Germany and the liberation of Europe. Roosevelt wanted Soviet support in the American Pacific War against Japan, especially for the planned invasion of Japan (Operation August Storm) as well as Soviet participation in the United Nations; Churchill lobbied for free elections and democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe (especially Poland); and Stalin called for a Soviet sphere of political influence in Central and Eastern Europe as an essential aspect of the USSR`s national security strategy. Stalin`s position at the conference was one he considered so strong that he could dictate the terms.
According to James F. Byrnes, a member of the U.S. delegation and future secretary of state, “it was not about what we would let the Russians do, but about what we could get the Russians to do.”  What did their final settlement look like then? In a large collection of World War II-era documents in the Truman Library archives, a press release dated the 12th. ==External links==It contains a statement by Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin on the outcome of the conference. The leaders announced that they had achieved “closer coordination than ever before of the military efforts of the three Allies” and promised to launch “new and even more powerful strikes” against the enemy. “Nazi Germany is doomed,” the statement continued, and the Germans should capitulate to avoid further suffering. By this time, the Soviet army had fully occupied Poland and held much of Eastern Europe with military power three times greater than that of allied forces in the West. [Citation needed] The Declaration of Liberated Europe did little to dispel the sphere of influence agreements that had been included in the ceasefire agreements. Four days later, on the 27th. In March, the Soviet Commissariat for the Interior (NKVD) arrested 16 Polish opposition political leaders who had been invited to participate in the interim government`s negotiations.  The arrests were part of an NKVD ruse that transported the leaders to Moscow for a subsequent show trial, followed by a gulag sentence.   Churchill then argued to Roosevelt that it was “as clear as a pike stick” that Moscow`s tactic was to extend the time needed to hold free elections “while the Lublin Committee consolidated its power.”  The Polish elections held on January 16, 1947 led to the official transformation of Poland into a communist state in 1949.